Periodization authority Tudor Bompa and strength and conditioning expert Carlo Buzzichelli eliminate the guesswork and establish a clear path to reaching peak physical condition and gaining a competitive edge. Periodization Training for Sports includes programs and training models for 35 sports.
Tudor O. Bompa, PhD, revolutionized Western training methods when he introduced his groundbreaking theory of periodization in Romania in 1963. After adopting his training system, the Eastern Bloc countries dominated international sports through the 1970s and 1980s. In 1988, Dr. Bompa applied his principle of periodization to the sport of bodybuilding. He has personally trained 11 Olympic medalists (including four gold medalists) and has served as a consultant to coaches and athletes worldwide.
Depending on your sport, your nutrition goals may include losing or gaining weight, decreasing body fat and increasing lean muscle mass, reducing inflammation and free radical production, or improving blood lipids. This edition provides athletes with everything they need to understand the concept and implement it during daily training.
No other text discusses planning and periodization in such detail or with so many specific, practical examples from a variety of sports. With the fifth edition of Periodization, you can learn the principles, objectives, and components of a successful long-term training program and how to plan the right program to achieve your performance goals. Periodization also contains proven strategies for optimal peaking and specifics on training for better motor ability, working capacity, skill effectiveness, and psychological adaptability.
Professor emeritus at York University in Toronto, Bompa has authored several books on physical conditioning, including the second edition of Serious Strength Training, Periodization Training for Sports, and Total Training for Young Champions as well as numerous articles on the subject. He has made presentations on periodization training in more than 30 countries. His publications, conferences, and ideas are highly regarded and sought out by many top professional athletes and training specialists. Bompa and his wife, Tamara, live in Sharon, Ontario.
A frequent presenter at national conferences on the topic of periodization, Haff was invited to present his research on the periodization of strength training in the United Kingdom in 2008. Haff also received a Distinguished Teaching Award from West Virginia University School of Medicine in 2008. In 2001, he was the recipient of the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) Young Investigator of the Year Award.
He begins his chapter by explaining the aims of a preseason period in team sports, which primarily focuses on reducing the risk of injury, developing biomotor abilities, and targeting arguably the most important aspect of training: tactical development. Burgess details how in most team sports at the professional level, the preseason period can range from as few as 4-6 weeks (EPL) to as long as 16 weeks (Australian Rules football). Therefore, the structure, content, and design of this period of training is highly dependent on which sport you are involved in.
Burgess highlights perhaps the biggest risk of injury for team sport athletes is high-speed running (HSR >20 km/h), or sprinting. Although coaches might look to avoid HSR to limit the chance of injury, the reality is that once the competitive season begins, the ability to sprint and break away from an opponent is game changing. Therefore, Burgess recommends an early, yet gradual, introduction to this type of training. Like all components of training, HSR needs to be periodized accordingly, and, along with speed and power development, the density of these components will differ between sports, positions on the field, and player history.
In summary, sports performance is more than just speed, power, and periodization; it relies on the relationships between the coaching staff and the athletes. Reflecting and improving on your interactions and overall communication should be a high priority for all coaches, and something to constantly refine.
Overall, HPTS 2nd edition is a book all performance coaches need to read, highlight, re-read, post-it note, and read again. In my opinion, this book will serve as the leading reference manual for strength & conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, and sports scientists across the globe.
Garage Strength is a professional strength training facility based in Berks County, Pennsylvania, helping athletes dominate in Football, Wrestling, Olympic Weightlifting, and more. Beyond strength training for athletes, coach Dane Miller works with strength and conditioning coaches on periodization training and lifting technique. As an expert strength coach (developing D1 football recruits, Olympic athletes, and state champions), Dane designs football workout programs and strength and conditioning programs for speed training and power development.
ABSTRACTAll teams and athletes have goals in mind with their prospective sports. They work hard and train in the off-season to achieve their goals. Most coaches and athletes change the intensity, volume, and exercises in their workouts to improve performance. In the past, the attempts at this have been from intuitive knowledge. But over the past 20 years, many coaches have learned and utilized the periodization theory. Although periodization has become more popular, coaches and athletes still appear to struggle with completely grasping the idea of periodization.
Many coaches periodize training without a full understanding of the many facets of this invaluable training method (10). A long term plan can periodize training in the weight room that will allow athletes to reach their full athletic potential, and, just as important become as strong as possible in the off-season right leading up to competition. The goal of this article is to give coaches and athletes a better understanding of a very relevant way to program for improvements in strength and performance. It will also provide specific ways of applying facets of periodization in setting goals for their athletes (11).
Macrocycles and MesocyclesTo fully understand periodization, it is imperative to discuss macrocycles and mesocycles. Macrocycles and mesocycles are fundamental organizational planning elements used throughout periodization. The larger period of training is considered a macrocycle and can range from multiple months to four years long. The mesocycle is what the macrocyle is broken up into and is numerous weeks to numerous months. There are also microcycles, which are the broken up periods of a mesocycle. The microcycle is focused more on daily and weekly specific training differences, whereas the macrocycle is the bigger picture of the overall training goals and styles. The traditional periodization system, the macrocycle is divided up into two major parts; the first is for more wide-ranging work in the preparatory period and the second is geared toward sport-specific work and getting ready for competition in the competition period (3). Periodization is simply devising a macrocycle that has specific mesocycles and microcycles for each planned period.
For the neuromuscular system to fully benefit from the training load or stress, it is imperative to vary the volume and intensity. If the system is allowed to adapt to stressors without associated changes in overload, the body will no longer need to adapt, and increases in the wanted results will stop in time. Planning changes in volume and intensity assists in avoiding this problem since the load on the neuromuscular system is constantly changing. Periodization is useful for adding variations to workouts, which helps athletes avoid boredom and/or training plateaus (8). The most common and beneficial way to utilize a periodization program is to manipulate the volume and intensity of the workouts.
Studies (5-7, 9) have shown that nonlinear periodization results in greater fitness gains and overall better results than other training models provide. These studies, which included Division III college football players and women Division I tennis players, proved that nonlinear training models produced significantly greater changes in body composition, strength, and power than nonvaried training models. These changes still continued to happen after months of training. It was evident that these benefits hold true for trained and untrained athletes (4, p.15-21).
Through experiments with block periodization in other sports, the chief organizational loads of training were nearly indistinguishable. The overarching themes of block periodization remained constant. Training blocks have a high number of exercises that focus on a low number of specific skills. The projected number of training blocks is usually three to four. This is different from the traditional model which has a mesocycle taxonomy of 9-11 types; one mesocycle block can be from 2 to 4 weeks in length. This helps permit the beneficial biochemical, morphological, and directed changes to occur without unwarranted fatigue build up. The linking of one mesocycle creates a training phase. Putting mesocycles in the best order possible is valuable to competition and peaking (3, p.199).
The principle of variation builds on the notion that systematic variation in specific training variables is most effective for long-term adaptations [90,91,92]. According to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), advanced athletes should perform training with higher relative loading in a periodized fashion. The higher the performance level, the more systematic variation is recommended . The most commonly investigated training theory involving planned training variation is periodization, an often misused term that today refers to any form of training plan, regardless of structure .
In conclusion, elite coaches plan the training of their athl